Theology Club: A Question for Open Theists

Ask Mr. Religion

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Unlike others, I did not "resist the Spirit" which comes with the gospel (1 Thess.1:5).
In other words, as I and Spurgeon maintain, you were wiser and more discerning.

This is part and parcel your view:

“Lord, I thank thee that I am not like these poor, presumptuous Calvinists. Lord, I was born with a glorious free will; I was born with a power by which I can turn to thee of myself; I have improved my grace. If everybody had done the same with their grace as I have, they might all have been saved. Lord, I know that thou dost not make us willing if we are not willing ourselves… it was not thy grace that made us differ… I made use of what was given me, and others did not—that is the difference between me and them.”
Src: Spurgeon, Sermon on John 5:40 “Free Will a Slave” The New Park Street Pulpit, 1855- 1856, Volumes I & II (Pilgrim 1975), 395-402.

There is no other explanation for your "Unlike others, I did not resist...," for, as indicated above, you made use of what was given you since you assume you were born with the power to turn yourself to God. If only others has done the same with their grace as you have. Pat yourself on the back for your wisdom, Jerry. :AMR:

AMR
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
In other words, as I and Spurgeon maintain, you were wiser and more discerning.


No, everyone should believe the gospel because it is the absolute truth. There is no merit in believing something which is true. I am not wiser or more discerning than others who do not believe the gospel. Instead, I do not "resist the Holy Spirit"(Acts 7:51) as some men do.

Again, there is no merit in believing something that is absolutely true, and in this case the truth comes in the power of the Holy Spirit (1 Thess.1:5). And since I did not resist the Holy Spirit then I believe the gospel. And as a result of believing I was "born again"(regenerated), the truth revealed by both Peter and James here:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created" (Jas.1:18).​

The Calvinists have it backward. The Scriptures reveal that a person is "born again" (regenerated) as a result of his faith.

The Calvinists teach that a person is "born again" (regenerated) prior to faith.

When presented with these words of Peter and James you just run and hide! Do you think that with time they are going to just disappear?
 

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I am not wiser or more discerning than others who do not believe the gospel. Instead, I do not "resist the Holy Spirit"(Acts 7:51) as some men do.
Your answer is a tepid attempt to avoid the obvious. [FONT=&quot]Why are you able to not resist while your neighbor does?[/FONT]

AMR
 

Dialogos

New member
I don't know why you insist on creating contradiction where there is none.

1 Peter 1:23 is no problem for the Calvinist, in fact, it backs up the Ordo Solutis you took from Sproul's book.

1. We are deaf to the gospel and blind to its truth per 1 Cor 2:14. Lost people can't discern the truths of the gospel because they are spiritual truths.
2. The gospel is preached to us.
3. The Holy Spirit of God, through the Word of God, causes us to be born again.
4. Consequently, we are able to believe that word where before our regeneration we were unable to discern spiritual truths.
5. We believe.

Ergo, regeneration precedes faith.

Now, your Ordo Solutis has to go something like this.

1. We aren't really deaf to the gospel and blind to its truths even though scripture says we are.
2. We hear the gospel preached to us.
3. We believe the gospel, we cause ourselves to be born again (contrary to 1 Peter 1:3).
4. We are born again and receive the Spirit of God (which we don't really didn't need in the first place since we need no Divine help understanding spiritual things.)


The first problem with your Ordo Solutis is that you aren't really born again by the word, you are born again by your own inner ability to believe. Being born again isn't a need for you in order to understand Spiritual truths, you can do that just fine by yourself. Being, born again is your prize for being spiritually smarter, more spiritually sensitive or just plain a better person that those who don't respond in faith to the preaching of the gospel.

The second problem with your Ordo Solutis is that it runs exactly crossways from what Paul teaches in 1 Cor 2:14.
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
Now, your Ordo Solutis has to go something like this.

We aren't really deaf to the gospel and blind to its truths even though scripture says we are.

I do not believe that anyone is originally blind to the gospel and the following words of Paul prove that fact:

"And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing. The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God" (2 Cor.4:3-4).​

Here we read that the god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers. And the purpose as to why he blinds them is "so that they cannot see the light of the gospel." That means that those who are perishing did indeed at one time have the ability to see the light of the gospel.

After all, it is impossible to blind the minds of anyone to the truth of the gospel unless they have the ability in the first place to see the light of the gospel. The verb form of the word "blind" means to "make blind." It is impossible to "make blind" someone who is already blind.

The Calvinists must believe that the god of this age blinds those who are already blind! That idea is ridiculous.

Here the Lord Jesus illustrates that the word of God works in concert with the Spirit and that union results in life:

"It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life"
(Jn.6:63).​

We can understand that the gospel also works in concert with the Holy Spirit:

"For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and in much assurance" (1 Thess.1:5).​

Even though Paul makes it plain that the gospel comes in much power and in the Holy Spirit the Calvinists say that it is powerless to save anyone unless a person is first "born again."

The Calvinists teach that a person is "born again" or "regenerated" prior to "faith" despite the fact that both Peter and James make it plain that being "born again" happens as a result of faith:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created" (Jas.1:18).​

We have been discussing this subject for quite some time and you and Mr. Religion continue to avoid these passages like the plague!
 
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Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
Your answer is a tepid attempt to avoid the obvious. Why are you able to not resist while your neighbor does?

I will give you a couple examples of why some men do not come to the light of the gospel and it is not because they do not have the ability to come to its light:

"He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved" (Jn.3:18-20).​

The reason why some men do not come to the light of the gospel is because their deeds are evil, not because they lack the ability. Here is another reason why some do not come to the light of the gospel:

"And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing. The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God"
(2 Cor.4:3-4).​

How does the god of this age blind the minds of some people to the light of the gospel? One way it happens it that the minions of the god of this age teach that no one can be saved apart from works of one kind or another. Those who believe this lie are blinded to the truth of the gospel which declares that "grace" and "works" are mutually exclusive.

And again, this has nothing to do with the idea that those who do not come to the light do not do so because they do not have the ability.
 
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Ask Mr. Religion

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Thanks be to God I am not like my neighbor...sigh.

Thanks be to God I am not like my neighbor...sigh.

I will give you a couple examples of why some men do not come to the light of the gospel and it is not because they do not have the ability to come to its light:

The reason why some men do not come to the light of the gospel is because their deeds are evil, not because they lack the ability.
So you had none or less evil deeds than another? Good for you!

Here is another reason why some do not come to the light of the gospel:

"And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing. The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God"
(2 Cor.4:3-4).​

How does the god of this age blind the minds of some people to the light of the gospel?
So fortunately you were not one of those so blinded? Again, congratulations!

And again, this has nothing to do with the idea that those who do not come to the light do not do so because they do not have the ability.
You just keep making my point, Jerry:

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...Open-Theists&p=4889197&viewfull=1#post4889197

All your responses simply indicate you were somehow more wise, more discerning, more fortunate than your neighbor. Wow!

AMR
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
So you had none or less evil deeds than another? Good for you!

Of course there are many people now in prisons who have committed many more evil acts than I have ever thought of committing. I guess that you cannot say the same?

Besides that, the verses which I quoted do not say that the reason why those who loved darkness didn't come to the light was because they didn't have the ability. Instead, here is the reason:

"For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved"
(Jn.3:18-20).​

So fortunately you were not one of those so blinded? Again, congratulations!

I know many people who will just believe what some men say about the Scriptures because they are too lazy to investigate what is actually said in the Scriptures. The mind's of those people are easily blinded to the truth of the gospel. On the other hand, when I was told this or that about what the gospel says I did investigate on my own to find out the truth. Therefore, my mind was not blinded to the truth of the gospel because that truth is very clear.

You just keep making my point, Jerry:

The only point which you have made is the fact that you continue to run away as fast as you can from the verses which prove that the ideas put forth by the Calvinists are in error:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created" (Jas.1:18).​

Run man, run!
 

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Jerry Shugart was "special" when he was lost, nothing like his lost neighbor

Jerry Shugart was "special" when he was lost, nothing like his lost neighbor

The only point which you have made is the fact that you continue to run away as fast as you can from the verses which prove that the ideas put forth by the Calvinists are in error:
"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created" (Jas.1:18).​

Run man, run!
Jerry, as you declare victory spend some time comparing my responses to your facile quotations of Scripture while thinking you have met your burden:

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...Open-Theists&p=4888707&viewfull=1#post4888707

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...Open-Theists&p=4888477&viewfull=1#post4888477

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...ch-is-of-God&p=4886893&viewfull=1#post4886893

As the evidence indicates, when you can meet me at even half the distance that I have traveled in substantively responding to you, perhaps discussing "victory" will take place. For now, you have done nothing but repeat yourself, seasoning boldface formatting of Scripture with some naked opinions, never directly interacting with the actual details of my responses. Now who do you think is the one running? :AMR:

Your responses to me continue to indicate you believe you are special. Indeed, apparently you are not like the neighbor who apparently possesses the same libertarian free will you do yet does not grasp what you grasped. Thanks be to God that when it comes to the teachings of Scripture about the state of all the lost, you are the exception (Jer. 17:9; Mark 7:21-23; Eph. 2:2; Eph. 2:4-5; Titus 3:5; John 3:19; Rom. 3:10-12; 5:6; 6:16-20; Eph. 2:1,3;1 Cor. 2:14).

All I am forced to do is congratulate you for your wonderfulness.


AMR
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
As the evidence indicates, when you can meet me at even half the distance that I have traveled in substantively responding to you, perhaps discussing "victory" will take place.

It is you who continues to close your eyes to the truth concerning being "born again" (regeneration) as revealed by the words of both Peter and James:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you"
(1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created"
(Jas.1:18).​

These verses demonstrate that being "born again" comes as a result of believing the gospel. Not, as you and the Calvinists teach, before believing the gospel.

I have done the best that I can do in order to try to get you to actually discuss the meaning of these verses but you continue to refuse to discuss them!

I certainly am not declaring victory because I have failed to get you to actually face the truth in regard to what Peter and James say about being "born again."

As they say, you can lead a horse to water but you can't make them drink!
 

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As Was Demonstrated - Jerry Doubles Down Yet Again

As Was Demonstrated - Jerry Doubles Down Yet Again

Jerry, as you declare victory spend some time comparing my responses to your facile quotations of Scripture while thinking you have met your burden:

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...Open-Theists&p=4888707&viewfull=1#post4888707

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...Open-Theists&p=4888477&viewfull=1#post4888477

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...ch-is-of-God&p=4886893&viewfull=1#post4886893

As the evidence indicates, when you can meet me at even half the distance that I have traveled in substantively responding to you, perhaps discussing "victory" will take place. For now, you have done nothing but repeat yourself, seasoning boldface formatting of Scripture with some naked opinions, never directly interacting with the actual details of my responses. Now who do you think is the one running? :AMR:

Your responses to me continue to indicate you believe you are special. Indeed, apparently you are not like the neighbor who apparently possesses the same libertarian free will you do yet does not grasp what you grasped. Thanks be to God that when it comes to the teachings of Scripture about the state of all the lost, you are the exception (Jer. 17:9; Mark 7:21-23; Eph. 2:2; Eph. 2:4-5; Titus 3:5; John 3:19; Rom. 3:10-12; 5:6; 6:16-20; Eph. 2:1,3;1 Cor. 2:14).

All I am forced to do is congratulate you for your wonderfulness.


AMR

It is you who continues to close your eyes to the truth concerning being "born again" (regeneration) as revealed by the words of both Peter and James:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you"
(1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created"
(Jas.1:18).​

These verses demonstrate that being "born again" comes as a result of believing the gospel. Not, as you and the Calvinists teach, before believing the gospel

Q.E.D.

AMR
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member

The only thing which you have proven is that you continue to run away from these two verses as fast as you can:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created"
(Jas.1:18).​

These verses demonstrate that being "born again" comes as a result of believing the gospel. Not, as you and the Calvinists teach, before believing the gospel.

The fact that you refuse to even discuss what is said in these verses tells me that you have no answer to what is said. The sad thing is that you continue to cling to what some men say about the Scriptures instead of actually believing the truth which is revealed by Peter and James.
 

Jamie Gigliotti

New member
Given that our wills are driven by motives, the unbeliever's motives can only be to sin more or sin less. Nothing the unbeliever does is for the glory of God. Hence, their choices are but choices borne of evil motives. Can the unbeliever choose among these competing evil motives? Of course. In fact, that is all that the unbeliever can do: choosing among competing evil motives.

But...to assert that the lost possess the moral ability to choose Light over Darkness ignores the dire state of all who are lost in Adam (
Jer. 17:9; Mark 7:21-23; Eph. 2:2; Eph. 2:4-5; Titus 3:5; John 3:19; Rom. 3:10-12; 5:6; 6:16-20; Eph. 2:1,3;1 Cor. 2:14). The lost require a supernatural work of God the Holy Spirit to give them a new heart (Eze. 36:26)—regeneration or what is called "born anew"[FONT=&]—[/FONT]such that they will now possess the moral ability to choose to glorify God, beginning with sure faith and repentance.

We have to be careful when we say God or the Devil is working within us. God is not doing the believing and the repenting for us any more than the Devil is doing the sinning for us. We do these things, within the bounds of our spontaneous free will, that is, the liberty of choosing according to our greatest inclinations at the moment we so choose. We believers are indeed God's workmanship, which does not mean we are but passive recipients of God's actions. There is a concurrency of God's will upon us and our own newly regenerated wills. God uses means, such as the hearing of the Good News, to bring about His ends for all that He has ordained.

For a more detailed discussion of this see my:

http://theologyonline.com/showthrea...n-vs-Enyart)&p=1535835&viewfull=1#post1535835

AMR

What choice does the lost have? What are the competing motives? Pride and humility.

Humility does not exert power. We are powerless. Humility recognizes and embraces and chooses to live in this reality. The Devil has been whispering incites of pride from the beginning.

The Spirit whispers of the love of God found in contriteness of heart and spirit.

The devil does not give up easily on a found soul as Paul aptly warns. "Do not become arrogant but be afraid.... Otherwise you also will be cut off" Romans 11:20,22

And again," Since we these promises, dear friends, let us purify ourselves from everything that contaminates body and spirit, perfecting holiness out of reverence for God. " 2 Corinthians 7:1

We all have choices to make and He holds us all accountable... will we choose life or death?
 
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Derf

Well-known member
It is you who continues to close your eyes to the truth concerning being "born again" (regeneration) as revealed by the words of both Peter and James:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you"
(1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created"
(Jas.1:18).​

These verses demonstrate that being "born again" comes as a result of believing the gospel. Not, as you and the Calvinists teach, before believing the gospel.

I have done the best that I can do in order to try to get you to actually discuss the meaning of these verses but you continue to refuse to discuss them!

I certainly am not declaring victory because I have failed to get you to actually face the truth in regard to what Peter and James say about being "born again."

As they say, you can lead a horse to water but you can't make them drink!

Hi Jerry,
I tend to agree with your conclusion, but I don't see how those verses prove that. Can you explain why? maybe the context is necessary...?
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
Hi Jerry,
I tend to agree with your conclusion, but I don't see how those verses prove that. Can you explain why? maybe the context is necessary...?

In order to understand my remarks which prove that the Calvinists are in error about their teaching that being "born of God" (regeneration) precedes "faith" it is necessary to understand their ideas concerning the "logical order of salvation":

"The 'ordo salutis' is the order of salvation. This focuses on the acts of God and the response of the individual in salvation. God calls us, produces regeneration in us, so that we respond with repentance, faith, and obedience. Behind the divine call is God’s electing decree. The 'ordo salutis' is not concerned with a temporal sequence of events, but with a logical order" (The Order of Salvation, Ligonier Ministries, The Teaching Fellowship of R.C. Sproul).​

According to this the logical order is first, God calling us. Then secondly, He produces regeneration (born again) in us. Then finally that enables us to respond in faith.

So being born again precedes faith according to the Calvinists' logical order. But both Peter and James makes it plain that is is faith which results in being born of God:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created"
(Jas.1:18).​

The Calvinists have it backward. The Scriptures reveal that a person is "born again" (regenerated) as a result of his faith.

The Calvinists teach that a person is "born again" (regenerated) prior to faith.
 

Derf

Well-known member
In order to understand my remarks which prove that the Calvinists are in error about their teaching that being "born of God" (regeneration) precedes "faith" it is necessary to understand their ideas concerning the "logical order of salvation":

"The 'ordo salutis' is the order of salvation. This focuses on the acts of God and the response of the individual in salvation. God calls us, produces regeneration in us, so that we respond with repentance, faith, and obedience. Behind the divine call is God’s electing decree. The 'ordo salutis' is not concerned with a temporal sequence of events, but with a logical order" (The Order of Salvation, Ligonier Ministries, The Teaching Fellowship of R.C. Sproul).​

According to this the logical order is first, God calling us. Then secondly, He produces regeneration (born again) in us. Then finally that enables us to respond in faith.

So being born again precedes faith according to the Calvinists' logical order. But both Peter and James makes it plain that is is faith which results in being born of God:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created"
(Jas.1:18).​

The Calvinists have it backward. The Scriptures reveal that a person is "born again" (regenerated) as a result of his faith.

The Calvinists teach that a person is "born again" (regenerated) prior to faith.
I understand that, but your verses don't seem to support your conclusion. Rather, they tend to support AMR's. On the face, they talk about "the word" causing an effect, which sounds like "and God said...and it was so." Or about God's choice, which suggests God was performing an act (of choosing) which led to salvation. How does that speak against Calvinism?

But perhaps you could explain why you think they support yours.

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Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
I understand that, but your verses don't seem to support your conclusion. Rather, they tend to support AMR's. On the face, they talk about "the word" causing an effect, which sounds like "and God said...and it was so." Or about God's choice, which suggests God was performing an act (of choosing) which led to salvation. How does that speak against Calvinism?

But perhaps you could explain why you think they support yours.

i will be glad to do that. Here the Lord Jesus illustrates that the word of God works in concert with the Spirit and that union results in life:

"It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life"
(Jn.6:63).​

We can understand that the gospel also works in concert with the Holy Spirit:

"For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and in much assurance" (1 Thess.1:5).​

Even though Paul makes it plain that the gospel comes in much power and in the Holy Spirit the Calvinists say that it is powerless to save anyone unless a person is first "born again."

In the following words of the Apostle John we see that "life" comes as a result of believing that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God:

"Jesus performed many other signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name" (Jn.20:30-31).​

So when a person believes he is "born again" (regenerated) by the word of God:

"Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God...And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you" (1 Pet.1:23,25).​

"He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created" (Jas.1:18).​

This demonstrates that a person is "born again" as a result of believing the gospel. The Calvinists teach that being "born again" happens prior to believing.
 

Ask Mr. Religion

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Regeneration is via Ordinary Means of the Gospel

Regeneration is via Ordinary Means of the Gospel

Even though Paul makes it plain that the gospel comes in much power and in the Holy Spirit the Calvinists say that it is powerless to save anyone unless a person is first "born again."
Pardon the interruption, but no Calvinist says the Holy Spirit is powerless to save anyone.

It is the Holy Spirit that quickens the spiritually dead to life. This quickening is ordinarily accompanies the hearing of the Good News. This instantaneous regenerative event (born-again, born-anew, etc.,) enables the person to believe, who will not not believe.

Carry on now.

AMR
 

Jerry Shugart

Well-known member
Pardon the interruption, but no Calvinist says the Holy Spirit is powerless to save anyone.

It is the Holy Spirit that quickens the spiritually dead to life. This quickening is ordinarily accompanies the hearing of the Good News.

Are you saying that it is only the "hearing" of the Good News which results in a person being "born again"?

Are you saying that the following words of the Lord Jesus reveal that it is only the hearing of His words which result in receiving "life"?:

"It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life" (Jn.6:63).​

Are you saying that the following words of the Lord Jesus are saying that those who only hear (but not believe) receive life?:

"Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live" (Jn.5:24).​

The words of the Lord which immediately precede those words show us exactly how those who hear His words receive life:

""Very truly I tell you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be judged but has crossed over from death to life" (Jn.5:24).​

It is by believing that a person receives life. John Calvin certainly understood that "life" is received by faith:

"But the Apostle, that he might keep us together in Christ, again repeats that life is found in him; as though he had said, that no other way of obtaining life has been appointed for us by God the Father. And the Apostle, indeed, briefly includes here three things: that we are all given up to death until God in his gratuitous favor restores us to life; for he plainly declares that life is a gift from God: and hence also it follows that we are destitute of it, and that it cannot be acquired by merits; secondly, he teaches us that this life is conferred on us by the gospel, because there the goodness and the paternal love of God is made known to us; lastly, he says that we cannot otherwise become partakers of this life than by believing in Christ"
(John Calvin, Commentary on 1 John 5:11).​
 
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