Rashidun Caliphate 632-661

Umayyad Caliphate 661–750

Abbasid Caliphate 750-1517

Tulunid and Fatimid Dynasties in Egypt
868-1171

Seljuk Empire 1037–1194

Ifriqiya and Sicily 647-973

Almoravid and Almohad Dynasties in Maghreb
1036-1269

Mughal Empire 1526–1857

Safavid dynasty 1501–1736

Ottoman Empire 1299–1923